• Md Salauddin Urban and Rural Planning Discipline, Khulna University, Khulna-9208, Bangladesh
  • Sajjad Zohir Economic Research Group, Brac University
  • Avijit Kumer Sarker Economic Research Group, Brac University



Water landscape, Ecology, inequality, encroachment, governance, Khulna City


This paper examines the water landscape in Khulna City from two perspectives: household water supply and the importance of surface water in the city’s ecology. The authors seek to explore whether the current water supply system can achieve goal 6.1 of the Sustainable Development Goals (Universal and Equitable access to safe and affordable water for all), and the drivers of surface water deterioration and the city’s ecological changes. Both the primary and secondary materials have been consulted. Analysis of water infrastructure and water body encroachments have been explored using remote sensing and GIS tools. Investigation of the water supply networks in Khulna city shows a clear geographical division, where the planned residential and affluent areas enjoy most of the water network coverage. Affluent areas with piped networks and other sources consumed much more water than other parts of the city. Map-based and observational analysis of the Mayur River and Nirala Canal asserts that the water bodies have been encroached severely. About 65% of the total area of the Nirala canal has been encroached on by the government as well as private organizations and individuals. Businesses on and around the Mayur River are booming. As a result, rivers and canals are unable to maintain water flows resulting in higher intensity of water logging and other ecological disruptions. Several recommendations including supply-based water management, hierarchical water tariffs, increasing water supply coverage, the introduction of non-conflicting activities around water bodies and inter-organizational collaboration have been proposed to make the city resilient against the adverse impacts of climate and man-made disruptions. 


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