• Md. Ripul Kabir Sociology Discipline, Khulna University, Khulna 9208, Bangladesh
  • Sharmin Akter Shapla Department of Sociology, Begum Rokeya University, Rangpur, Bangladesh
  • Mamunor Rashid Mass Communication and Journalism Discipline, Khulna University, Khulna 9208, Bangladesh



Santal, reproductive behavior, fertility intension, birth control method, pregnancy period


The purpose of this study was to explore the fertility intensions and family planning of the Santal women as well as to find out their reproductive involvement with contraceptive usages. This survey was carried out on Rangpur Sadar and Pirgonj upazila under Rangpur district during January to March, 2018. Random sampling technique was adopted and total sample size was 150. The study shows that majority of the Santal women’s marital age was between 15 and 19 years and they had one to three children. Most of them were not in practice of abortion and even a very few number of miscarriages was found in their reproductive behavior. Most of them were not forced to use any contraceptive. More than half of the Santal women became pregnant from one to two times in their life and first pregnancy was enumerated during their first year of matrimony as they did not take any birth control method just after their marriage. It is observed from the study that there prevails an association between Santal women’s number of pregnancy and their duration of marriage (p<0.001). The regression analysis shows that duration of marriage and number of family members had a positive impact on the pregnancy number of the Santal married women. They worked outside their home during their pregnancy. A significant number of Santal married women do not know how to use contraceptives properly. Awareness should be increased regarding the usage of contraceptives among illiterate married Santal women.


Download data is not yet available.


Agrawal, S. (2013). Disadvantageous Situation of Tribal Women and Children of Orissa, India: A Special Reference to Their Health and Nutritional Status. Journal of Community Nutrition and Health, 2(1):3–14.

Ali, A. (1998). The Santal of Bangladesh, The Sabuge Sangah Press, Calcutta.

Bandyopadhyay, P.K. (1999). Tribal Situation in Eastern India, Subarnarekha, Calcutta, pp. 51-52.

Borah, R., Chutia, N. and Hazarika, P. (2014). Reproductive Behavior of Tribal Women Participating in Agricultural Works: An Empirical Study. International Journal of Social Science, 3(3): 285-318.

Chandraker, R., Chakrabarty, S.,Mitra, M. and Bharati, P. (2009). A Study on Reproductive and Child Health among the Dhur Gond Tribal Community of Mahasamund District, Chhattisgarh, India. Studies of Tribes and Tribal, 7(2): 97-103.

Chomitz, V. R., Cheung, L.W.Y. & Lieberman, E. (1995). The role of lifestyle in preventing low birth weight, The Future of Children, 5(1):121-138.

Davis, K. (1955). Institutional patters favoring high fertility in underdeveloped areas. Eugenics Quarterly, (2); 33-39.

Davis, K., & Blake, J. (1956). Social structure and fertility: An analytic framework. Economic Development and Cultural Change, (4); 211-235.

Debbarma, S. (2005). The Reangs of Tripura. In S. K. Chaudhari, & S. S. Chaudhari (Eds.), Primitive tribes in contemporary India, (1); 221-228, Mittal Publications, New Delhi.

Haq, I. (2018). Relationship between Age at Marriage, Education and Fertility among the Residence of Bangladesh. American Journal of Social Science Research, 4(2):33-39.

Kamal, S. M., & Hassan, C. H. (2013). Socioeconomic Correlates of Contraceptive Use among the Ethnic Tribal Women of Bangladesh: Does Sex Preference Matter? Journal of family & reproductive health, 7(2); 73–86.

Mitra, A. (2008). ‘The status of women among the scheduled tribes in India’, Journal of Socio-Economics,37

Nag, M. (1975). Marriage and kinship in relation to human fertility In M. Nam (Ed.), Population and social organization, pp. 11-54, Mouton Publishers, Hauge, Netherlands.(3):1202–1217. doi: 10.1016/j.socec.2006.12.077.

Nagda, B.L. (2017). Tribal Population and Health in Rajasthan, Studies of Tribes and Tribals; 2(1):1-8.

Patel, V., Kirkwood, B. R., Pednekar, S., Pereira, B., Barros, P., Fernandes, J., Datta, J., Pai, R., Weiss, H. and Mabey, D.( 2006). Gender Disadvantage and Reproductive Health Risk Factors for Common Mental Disorders in Women: A Community Survey in India. Archives of General Psychiatry, 63

Patro, B.K., Kant, S., Baridalyne N. and Goswami, A.K. (2005). Contraceptive Practices among Married Women in a Resettlement Colony of Delhi. Health and Population Perspectives and Issues, 28(1): 9-16. (4):404-413. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.63.4.404

Rahman, S. A., Kielmann, T., McPake, B., and Normand, C. (2012). Healthcare-seeking Behavior among the Tribal People of Bangladesh: Can the Current Health System Really Meet Their Needs? Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition, 30(3): 353-365.

Salehin, M. A. (2012). Reproductive Health of Tribal Populations in India: A Sustainability Approach, Ph. D Dissertations. The University of Texas at Arlington, USA.

Shree, V., Prasad, R. R., Kumar, S., Sinha, S., and Choudhary, S. K. (2017). Factors for nonacceptance of contraceptive methods amongst married women of reproductive age group in rural Patna. International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health; 4(6):1882-1887.

Smith, N. G. (2000). Reproductive Behavior, Encyclopedia Britannica. /science/reproductive-behaviour-zoology. Access date- January 09, 2021.

Stycos, J. M. (1958). Some directions for research on fertility control. Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly,(36) 126-148.

Swicegood, C.G. and Bean, F.D. (2001). Immigrant Fertility, In International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences (pp.7201-7205), USA: McGraw Hill Publication.

Uddin, E. M. (2015). Family Socio-cultural Values Affecting Early Marriage between Muslim and Santal Communities in Rural Bangladesh. International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, 35(3/4); 141-164.

Upadhyay, C. (2005). Reproductive health and culture in Tribal India. Himanshu Publications. New Delhi, India.




How to Cite

M. R. Kabir, S. A. Shapla, and M. . Rashid, “REPRODUCTIVE BEHAVIOR OF THE MARRIED SANTAL WOMEN: A STUDY IN RANGPUR DISTRICT, BANGLADESH”, Khulna Univ. Stud., pp. 77–87, Dec. 2020.



Social Sciences

Similar Articles

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 > >> 

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.

Most read articles by the same author(s)