• Puja Ghosh Pharmacy Discipline, Life Science School, Khulna University, Khulna 9208, Bangladesh
  • S. M. Neamul Kabir Zihad Pharmacy Discipline, Life Science School, Khulna University, Khulna 9208, Bangladesh
  • Nazifa Sifat Pharmacy Discipline, Life Science School, Khulna University, Khulna 9208, Bangladesh
  • Razina Rouf Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Life Science, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Science and Technology University, Gopalganj 8100, Bangladesh
  • Md. Hemayet Hossain Chemical Research Division, Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (BCSIR), Dhaka-1205, Bangladesh
  • Shahin Aziz Pharmacy Discipline, Life Science School, Khulna University, Khulna 9208, Bangladesh
  • Md. Saifuzzaman Pharmacy Discipline, Life Science School, Khulna University, Khulna 9208, Bangladesh
  • Jamil A Shilpi Department of Pharmacy, Life Science Faculty, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Science and Technology University, Gopalganj (Dhaka)-8100, Bangladesh.
  • Shaikh Jamal Uddin Pharmacy Discipline, Life Science School, Khulna University, Khulna 9208, Bangladesh



Bangladeshi vegetables, Antioxidant, Proximate Nutritional values; Polyphenols


Four leafy vegetables, Phyla nodiflora, Amaranthus spinosus, Amaranthus viridis and Chenopodium album usually consumed by the Southern people of Bangladesh. In this study, we tested proximate composition and antioxidant potential of four leafy vegetables and further HPLC content of bioactive polyphenols in the most promising vegetable. The results revealed that they are rich in protein (12-17g/100g), carbohydrate (10- 20 g/100g) and fibre (29 - 44 g/100 g). The ash, glucose, sucrose and xylose contents were found within the ranges of 14-20 g/100 g, 35-77 mg/100 g, 32.79-68.72 mg/100 g and 3.79-7.71 mg/100 g, respectively. All the vegetables showed a lower content of lipid (0.73 – 1.47 g/100 g) and higher moisture content (81-85 g/100 g). The methanolic extracts of the vegetables were found to possess notable amount of total phenolic (11-60 mg GAE/g), total flavonoid (365-565 mg QE/g) and tannin content (28-49 mg TAE/g). All the samples showed significant DPPH free radical scavenging (IC50 53-1097 µg/ml) and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity (IC50 41-96 µg/ml). Out of these four species, C. album was found to be the most promising leafy vegetable because of its high protein and fibre content, low lipid content and good antioxidant activities. HPLC-DAD analysis revealed the presence of 3,4-dihydroxy benzoic acid, catechol, vanillic acid, syringic acid, rutin hydrate, p-coumaric acid, trans-ferulic acid, rosmarinic acid and quercetin in C. album. The results of this study provide evidence for the importance of these leafy vegetables in improving the nutritional and health status of Southern rural people of Bangladesh.


Download data is not yet available.


Akubugwo, I., Obasi, N., Chinyere, G., & Ugbogu, A. (2007). Nutritional and chemical value of Amaranthus hybridus L. leaves from Afikpo, Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology, 6(24).

Amin, F. U., Shah, S. A., & Kim, M. O. (2017). Vanillic acid attenuates Aβ 1-42-induced oxidative stress and cognitive impairment in mice. Scientific reports, 7, 40753.

Amorim, E., Nascimento, J., Monteiro, J., Sobrinho, T., Araujo, T., & Albuquerque, U. (2008). A Simple and Accurate Procedure for the Determination of Tannin and Flavonoid Levels and Some Applications in Ethnobotany and Ethnopharmacology. Functional Ecosystems and Communities, 2, 88-94.

Arora, S., & Itankar, P. (2018). Extraction, isolation and identification of flavonoid from Chenopodium album aerial parts. Journal of traditional and complementary medicine, 8(4), 476-482.

Association of Official Analytical Chemists, A. (2000). Official methods of analysis (Vol. 1). Gaithersburg, Maryland: AOAC International

Asyira, S. A., Sarbini, S. N. S., & Harah, Z. M. (2017). Mineral Content of Five Indigenous Leafy Vegetable from Bintulu Market, Sarawak Malaysia. Journal of Medicinal Herbs and Ethnomedicine, 2, 26-35.

Ayoka, O. A., Ojo, O. E., Imafidon, E. C., Ademoye, K. A., & Oladele, A. A. (2016). Neuro-endocrine effects of aqueous extract of Amaranthus viridis (Linn.) leaf in male Wistar rat model of cyclophosphamide-induced reproductive toxicity. Toxicology reports, 3, 608-619.

Chludil, H. D., Corbino, G. B., & Leicach, S. R. (2008). Soil quality effects on Chenopodium album flavonoid content and antioxidant potential. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 56(13), 5050-5056.

Chuanphongpanich, S., & Phanichphant, S. (2006). Method development and determination of phenolic compounds in broccoli seeds samples. Chiang Mai J Sci, 33(1), 103-107.

Delgado, M., Haza, A., García, A., & Morales, P. (2009). Myricetin, quercetin,(+)-catechin and (−)-epicatechin protect against N-nitrosamines-induced DNA damage in human hepatoma cells. Toxicology in vitro, 23(7), 1292-1297.

Dimitrios, B. (2006). Sources of natural phenolic antioxidants. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 17(9), 505-512.

Dubois, M., Gilles, K. A., Hamilton, J. K., Rebers, P. t., & Smith, F. (1956). Colorimetric method for determination of sugars and related substances. Analytical chemistry, 28(3), 350-356.

Ebert, A. W. (2014). Potential of underutilized traditional vegetables and legume crops to contribute to food and nutritional security, income and more sustainable production systems. Sustainability, 6(1), 319-335.

Halliwell, B. (1991). Reactive oxygen species in living systems: source, biochemistry, and role in human disease. The American Journal of Medicine, 91(3), S14-S22.

Hazra, B., Biswas, S., & Mandal, N. (2008). Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of Spondias pinnata. BMC Complement Altern Med, 8, 63-63.

Justino, G. C., Correia, C. F., Mira, L., Borges dos Santos, R. M., Martinho Simões, J. A., Silva, A. M., . . . Gigante, B. (2006). Antioxidant activity of a catechol derived from abietic acid. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 54(2), 342-348.

Kariuki, H. N., & Mwonjoria, J. K. o. (2013). Ethnomedicinal, phytochemical and pharmacological profile of genus Toddalia. Phytopharmacology, 4(2), 259-268.

Khan, R. A., Khan, M. R., Sahreen, S., & Ahmed, M. (2012). Evaluation of phenolic contents and antioxidant activity of various solvent extracts of Sonchus asper (L.) Hill. Chemistry Central Journal, 6(1), 12.

Kjeldahl, J. (1883). New method for the determination of nitrogen in organic substances. Zeitschrift für analytische Chemie, 22(1), 366-382.

Konuk, M., Afyon, A., & Yagiz, D. (2006). Chemical composition of some naturally growing and edible mushrooms. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 38(3), 799.

Laghari, A. H., Memon, S., Nelofar, A., Khan, K. M., & Yasmin, A. (2011). Determination of free phenolic acids and antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts obtained from fruits and leaves of Chenopodium album. Food chemistry, 126(4), 1850-1855.

Lonnie, M., Hooker, E., Brunstrom, J. M., Corfe, B. M., Green, M. A., Watson, A. W., . . . Johnstone, A. M. (2018). Protein for Life: Review of Optimal Protein Intake, Sustainable Dietary Sources and the Effect on Appetite in Ageing Adults. Nutrients, 10(3), 360.

Luceri, C., Giannini, L., Lodovici, M., Antonucci, E., Abbate, R., Masini, E., & Dolara, P. (2007). p-Coumaric acid, a common dietary phenol, inhibits platelet activity in vitro and in vivo. British Journal of Nutrition, 97(3), 458-463.

Lussier, N. (2010). Nutritional value of leafy green vegetables. Retrieved from

Marinova, G., & Batchvarov, V. (2011). Evaluation of the methods for determination of the free radical scavenging activity by DPPH. Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science, 17(1), 11-24.

McCord, J. M. (2000). The evolution of free radicals and oxidative stress. The American Journal of Medicine, 108(8), 652-659.

Odhav, B., Beekrum, S., Akula, U., & Baijnath, H. (2007). Preliminary assessment of nutritional value of traditional leafy vegetables in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 20(5), 430-435.

Oseni, K., & Olawoye, B. (2015). Underutilized indigenous vegetable (UIV) in Nigeria: a rich source of nutrient and antioxidants-a review. Annals Food Science and Technology, 16(2), 236-247.

Pearson, D. (1976). Chemical Analysis of Foods. (7th Edition ed.). Churchhill Livingstone, London.: J & A Churchill.

Poonia, A., & Upadhayay, A. (2015). Chenopodium album Linn: review of nutritive value and biological properties. Journal of food science and technology, 52(7), 3977-3985.

Rjeibi, I., Saad, A. B., & Hfaiedh, N. (2016). Oxidative damage and hepatotoxicity associated with deltamethrin in rats: The protective effects of Amaranthus spinosus seed extract. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, 84, 853-860.

Ruch, R. J., Cheng, S.-j., & Klaunig, J. E. (1989). Prevention of cytotoxicity and inhibition of intercellular communication by antioxidant catechins isolated from Chinese green tea. Carcinogenesis, 10(6), 1003-1008.

Sadhu, S. K., Okuyama, E., Fujimoto, H., & Ishibashi, M. (2003). Separation of Leucas aspera, a medicinal plant of Bangladesh, guided by prostaglandin inhibitory and antioxidant activities. Chemical and pharmaceutical bulletin, 51(5), 595-598.

Saeed, N., Khan, M. R., & Shabbir, M. (2012). Antioxidant activity, total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of whole plant extracts Torilis leptophylla L. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 12(1), 221.

Saikia, P., & Deka, D. C. (2013). Mineral content of some wild green leafy vegetables of North-East India. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 5(3), 117-121.

Satter, M. M. A., Khan, M. M. R. L., Jabin, S. A., Abedin, N., Islam, M. F., & Shaha, B. (2016). Nutritional quality and safety aspects of wild vegetables consume in Bangladesh. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 6(2), 125-131.

Saxena, R., Venkaiah, K., Anitha, P., Venu, L., & Raghunath, M. (2007). Antioxidant activity of commonly consumed plant foods of India: contribution of their phenolic content. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 58(4), 250-260.

Seagle, B.-L. L., Rezai, K. A., Gasyna, E. M., Kobori, Y., Rezaei, K. A., & Norris, J. R. (2005). Time-resolved detection of melanin free radicals quenching reactive oxygen species. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 127(32), 11220-11221.

Sharma, N., Gupta, P., & Rao, C. V. (2012). Nutrient content, mineral content and antioxidant activity of Amaranthus viridis and Moringa oleifera leaves. Res. J. Med. Plant, 6(3), 253-259.

Shetty, A. A., Magadum, S., & Managanvi, K. (2013). Vegetables as sources of antioxidants. Journal of Food and Nutritional Disorders, 2(1), 2.

Soliman, G. A. (2019). Dietary Fiber, Atherosclerosis, and Cardiovascular Disease. Nutrients, 11(5), 1155.

Song, M., Fung, T. T., Hu, F. B., Willett, W. C., Longo, V. D., Chan, A. T., & Giovannucci, E. L. (2016). Association of Animal and Plant Protein Intake With All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality. JAMA Internal Medicine, 176(10), 1453-1463.

Soxhlet, F. v. (1879). Die gewichtsanalytische bestimmung des milchfettes. Dingler's Polytechnisches Journal, 232, 461-465.

Sree, M., Joshna, A., Lakshmi, S. M., & Kumar, D. S. (2013). A review on South Indian edible leafy vegetables. Journal of Global Trends in Pharmaceutical Sciences, 4(4), 1248-1256.

Staszowska-Karkut, M., & Materska, M. (2020). Phenolic Composition, Mineral Content, and Beneficial Bioactivities of Leaf Extracts from Black Currant (Ribes nigrum L.), Raspberry (Rubus idaeus), and Aronia (Aronia melanocarpa). Nutrients, 12(2), 463.

Tai, A., Sawano, T., & Ito, H. (2012). Antioxidative properties of vanillic acid esters in multiple antioxidant assays. Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry, 76(2), 314-318.

Vit, K., Katerina, K., Zuzana, R., Kamil, K., Daniel, J., Ludek, J., & Lubomir, O. (2008). Condensed and Hydrolysable Tannins as Antioxidants Influencing the Health. Mini-Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry, 8(5), 436-447.

Zihad, S. M. N. K., Gupt, Y., Uddin, S. J., Islam, M. T., Alam, M. R., Aziz, S., .Sarker, S. D. (2019). Nutritional value, micronutrient and antioxidant capacity of some green leafy vegetables commonly used by southern coastal people of Bangladesh. Heliyon, 5(11), e02768.




How to Cite




Life Science

Similar Articles

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 > >> 

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.

Most read articles by the same author(s)